The 15th, 16th, and 17th Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Second Intermediate Period. The 15th Dynasty dates approximately from 1650 to 1550 BC. The dynasty was foreign to ancient Egypt, founded by Salitis, a Hyksos from West Asia whose people had invaded the country and conquered Lower Egypt.
Known rulers of the 15th Dynasty are as follows:
|Name||Dates and comments|
|Salitis||Mentioned by Manetho as first king of the dynasty; currently unidentified with any known archaeologically attested person.|
|Semqen||Mentioned on the Turin king list. According to Ryholt, he was an early Hyksos ruler, possibly the first king of the dynasty; von Beckerath assigns him to the 16th dynasty.|
|Aperanat||Mentioned on the Turin king list. According to Ryholt, he was an early Hyksos ruler, possibly the second king of the dynasty; von Beckerath assigns him to the 16th dynasty.|
|Sakir-Har||Named as an early Hyksos king on a doorjamb found at Avaris. Regnal order uncertain.|
|Apophis||c. 1590? BC-1550 BC|
|Khamudi||c. 1550-1540 BC|
The 15th Dynasty of Egypt was the first Hyksos dynasty, ruled from Avaris, without control of the entire land. The Hyksos preferred to stay in northern Egypt since they infiltrated from the north-east. The names and order of kings is uncertain. The Turin King list indicates that there were six Hyksos kings, with an obscure Khamudi listed as the final king of the 15th Dynasty.
Some scholars argue there were two Apophis kings named Apepi I and Apepi II, but this is primarily because there are two known prenomens for this king: Awoserre and Aqenenre. However, the Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt maintains in his study of the Second Intermediate Period that these prenomens all refer to one man: Apepi I, who ruled Egypt for 40+X years. This is also supported by this king's employment of a third prenomen during his reign: Nebkhepeshre. Apophis likely employed different prenomens over the course of several periods of his reign. This scenario is not without precedent or parallel, since several kings, including Mentuhotep II, the famous Ramesses II, and Seti II, are known to have used two different prenomens during their reigns.